`residuals.rma.Rd`

The `residuals`

, `rstandard`

, and `rstudent`

functions compute residuals, corresponding standard errors, and standardized residuals for models fitted with the `rma.uni`

, `rma.mh`

, `rma.peto`

, and `rma.mv`

functions.

```
# S3 method for rma
residuals(object, type="response", ...)
# S3 method for rma.uni
rstandard(model, digits, type="marginal", ...)
# S3 method for rma.mh
rstandard(model, digits, ...)
# S3 method for rma.peto
rstandard(model, digits, ...)
# S3 method for rma.mv
rstandard(model, digits, cluster, ...)
# S3 method for rma.uni
rstudent(model, digits, progbar=FALSE, ...)
# S3 method for rma.mh
rstudent(model, digits, progbar=FALSE, ...)
# S3 method for rma.peto
rstudent(model, digits, progbar=FALSE, ...)
# S3 method for rma.mv
rstudent(model, digits, progbar=FALSE, cluster,
reestimate=TRUE, parallel="no", ncpus=1, cl, ...)
```

- object
an object of class

`"rma"`

(for`residuals`

).- type
the type of residuals which should be returned. For

`residuals`

, the alternatives are:`"response"`

(default),`"rstandard"`

,`"rstudent"`

, and`"pearson"`

. For`rstandard.rma.uni`

, the alternatives are:`"marginal"`

(default) and`"conditional"`

. See ‘Details’.- model
an object of class

`"rma"`

(for`residuals`

) or an object of class`"rma.uni"`

,`"rma.mh"`

,`"rma.peto"`

, or`"rma.mv"`

(for`rstandard`

and`rstudent`

).- cluster
optional vector to specify a clustering variable to use for computing cluster-level multivariate standardized residuals (only for

`"rma.mv"`

objects).- reestimate
logical to specify whether variance/correlation components should be re-estimated after deletion of the \(i\textrm{th}\) case when computing externally standardized residuals for

`"rma.mv"`

objects (the default is`TRUE`

).- parallel
character string to specify whether parallel processing should be used (the default is

`"no"`

). For parallel processing, set to either`"snow"`

or`"multicore"`

. See ‘Note’.- ncpus
integer to specify the number of processes to use in the parallel processing.

- cl
optional cluster to use if

`parallel="snow"`

. If unspecified, a cluster on the local machine is created for the duration of the call.- digits
optional integer to specify the number of decimal places to which the printed results should be rounded. If unspecified, the default is to take the value from the object.

- progbar
logical to specify whether a progress bar should be shown (only for

`rstudent`

) (the default is`FALSE`

).- ...
other arguments.

The observed residuals (obtained with `residuals`

) are simply equal to the ‘observed - fitted’ values. These can be obtained with `residuals(object)`

(using the default `type="response"`

).

Dividing the observed residuals by the model-implied standard errors of the observed effect sizes or outcomes yields Pearson (or semi-standardized) residuals. These can be obtained with `residuals(object, type="pearson")`

.

Dividing the observed residuals by their corresponding standard errors yields (internally) standardized residuals. These can be obtained with `rstandard(model)`

or `residuals(object, type="rstandard")`

.

With `rstudent(model)`

(or `residuals(object, type="rstudent")`

), one can obtain the externally standardized residuals (also called standardized deleted residuals or (externally) studentized residuals). The externally standardized residual for the \(i\textrm{th}\) case is obtained by deleting the \(i\textrm{th}\) case from the dataset, fitting the model based on the remaining cases, calculating the predicted value for the \(i\textrm{th}\) case based on the fitted model, taking the difference between the observed and the predicted value for the \(i\textrm{th}\) case (which yields the deleted residual), and then standardizing the deleted residual based on its standard error.

If a particular case fits the model, its standardized residual follows (asymptotically) a standard normal distribution. A large standardized residual for a case therefore may suggest that the case does not fit the assumed model (i.e., it may be an outlier).

For `"rma.uni"`

objects, `rstandard(model, type="conditional")`

computes conditional residuals, which are the deviations of the observed effect sizes or outcomes from the best linear unbiased predictions (BLUPs) of the study-specific true effect sizes or outcomes (see `blup`

).

For `"rma.mv"`

objects, one can specify a clustering variable (via the `cluster`

argument). If specified, `rstandard(model)`

and `rstudent(model)`

also compute cluster-level multivariate (internally or externally) standardized residuals. If all outcomes within a cluster fit the model, then the multivariate standardized residual for the cluster follows (asymptotically) a chi-square distribution with \(k_i\) degrees of freedom (where \(k_i\) denotes the number of outcomes within the cluster).

See also `influence.rma.uni`

and `influence.rma.mv`

for other leave-one-out diagnostics that are useful for detecting influential cases in models fitted with the `rma.uni`

and `rma.mv`

functions.

Either a vector with the residuals of the requested type (for `residuals`

) or an object of class `"list.rma"`

, which is a list containing the following components:

- resid
observed residuals (for

`rstandard`

) or deleted residuals (for`rstudent`

).- se
corresponding standard errors.

- z
standardized residuals (internally standardized for

`rstandard`

or externally standardized for`rstudent`

).

When a clustering variable is specified for `"rma.mv"`

objects, the returned object is a list with the first element (named `obs`

) as described above and a second element (named `cluster`

of class `"list.rma"`

with:

- X2
cluster-level multivariate standardized residuals.

- k
number of observed effect sizes or outcomes within the clusters.

The object is formatted and printed with `print.list.rma`

. To format the results as a data frame, one can use the `as.data.frame`

function.

The externally standardized residuals (obtained with `rstudent`

) are calculated by refitting the model \(k\) times (where \(k\) denotes the number of cases). Depending on how large \(k\) is, it may take a few moments to finish the calculations. For complex models fitted with `rma.mv`

, this can become computationally expensive.

On machines with multiple cores, one can try to speed things up by delegating the model fitting to separate worker processes, that is, by setting `parallel="snow"`

or `parallel="multicore"`

and `ncpus`

to some value larger than 1 (only for objects of class `"rma.mv"`

). Parallel processing makes use of the `parallel`

package, using the `makePSOCKcluster`

and `parLapply`

functions when `parallel="snow"`

or using `mclapply`

when `parallel="multicore"`

(the latter only works on Unix/Linux-alikes). With `parallel::detectCores()`

, one can check on the number of available cores on the local machine.

Alternatively (or in addition to using parallel processing), one can also set `reestimate=FALSE`

, in which case any variance/correlation components in the model are not re-estimated after deleting the \(i\textrm{th}\) case from the dataset. Doing so only yields an approximation to the externally standardized residuals (and the cluster-level multivariate standardized residuals) that ignores the influence of the \(i\textrm{th}\) case on the variance/correlation components, but is considerably faster (and often yields similar results).

It may not be possible to fit the model after deletion of the \(i\textrm{th}\) case from the dataset. This will result in `NA`

values for that case when calling `rstudent`

.

Also, for `"rma.mv"`

objects with a clustering variable specified, it may not be possible to compute the cluster-level multivariate standardized residual for a particular cluster (if the var-cov matrix of the residuals within a cluster is not of full rank). This will result in `NA`

for that cluster.

The variable specified via `cluster`

is assumed to be of the same length as the data originally passed to the `rma.mv`

function (and if the `data`

argument was used in the original model fit, then the variable will be searched for within this data frame first). Any subsetting and removal of studies with missing values that was applied during the model fitting is also automatically applied to the variable specified via the `cluster`

argument.

For objects of class `"rma.mh"`

and `"rma.peto"`

, `rstandard`

actually computes Pearson (or semi-standardized) residuals.

Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). *Statistical methods for meta-analysis*. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Viechtbauer, W. (2010). Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. *Journal of Statistical Software*, **36**(3), 1–48. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v036.i03

Viechtbauer, W. (2021). Model checking in meta-analysis. In C. H. Schmid, T. Stijnen, & I. R. White (Eds.), *Handbook of meta-analysis* (pp. 219–254). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315119403

Viechtbauer, W., & Cheung, M. W.-L. (2010). Outlier and influence diagnostics for meta-analysis. *Research Synthesis Methods*, **1**(2), 112–125. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.11

`rma.uni`

, `rma.mh`

, `rma.peto`

, `rma.glmm`

, and `rma.mv`

for functions to fit models for which the various types of residuals can be computed.

`influence.rma.uni`

and `influence.rma.mv`

for other model diagnostics.

```
### calculate log risk ratios and corresponding sampling variances
dat <- escalc(measure="RR", ai=tpos, bi=tneg, ci=cpos, di=cneg, data=dat.bcg)
### fit random-effects model
res <- rma(yi, vi, data=dat)
### compute the studentized residuals
rstudent(res)
#>
#> resid se z
#> 1 -0.1822 0.8354 -0.2181
#> 2 -0.9314 0.7210 -1.2918
#> 3 -0.6625 0.8778 -0.7547
#> 4 -0.8131 0.5603 -1.4512
#> 5 0.5466 0.6448 0.8477
#> 6 -0.0752 0.6376 -0.1180
#> 7 -0.9657 0.7407 -1.3037
#> 8 0.8067 0.5563 1.4501
#> 9 0.2718 0.6668 0.4076
#> 10 -0.7183 0.6369 -1.1277
#> 11 0.4185 0.6255 0.6691
#> 12 1.2057 0.9348 1.2898
#> 13 0.7602 0.6400 1.1879
#>
### fit mixed-effects model with absolute latitude as moderator
res <- rma(yi, vi, mods = ~ ablat, data=dat)
### compute the studentized residuals
rstudent(res)
#>
#> resid se z
#> 1 0.1488 0.6587 0.2259
#> 2 -0.2801 0.5811 -0.4819
#> 3 -0.3906 0.7177 -0.5442
#> 4 -0.2709 0.4078 -0.6644
#> 5 -0.1044 0.4489 -0.2325
#> 6 0.3183 0.3296 0.9657
#> 7 -1.4026 0.5256 -2.6687
#> 8 0.2270 0.4082 0.5560
#> 9 0.0804 0.4226 0.1903
#> 10 -0.4538 0.4002 -1.1338
#> 11 -0.0704 0.3993 -0.1764
#> 12 1.1763 0.7867 1.4954
#> 13 0.7315 0.3529 2.0730
#>
```